Viola papilionacea f. alba (T. & G.) Farw.

Viola papilionacea plant

Family - Violaceae

Stems - A stout, thick, elongated caudex.

Leaves - Alternate, arising from ground level. Petioles to 12cm long, glabrous or with some pubescence near base of blade, with single vertical groove running the length of the petiole. Blade to +4cm broad, +3.5cm long, cordate at base, crenate to serrate, glabrous. Lower leaves typically reniform. Upper leaves with a pointed apex, ovate to deltoid.

Viola papilionacea leaves

Inflorescence - Single flowers arising from the base of plant. Peduncles glabrous, to +15cm long, curved at apex, with a pair of small bracts about in the middle of the peduncle. In early spring the flowers much exceed the leaves. Later, the leaves exceed the flowers.

Viola papilionacea bractArrow shows bract of peduncle.

Flowers - Corolla solid white, to 4cm broad. Petals 5. Lateral petals bearded near "throat" of corolla. Lower petal saccate at base, with dark striping and fading to a dull yellow at base. Stamens 5, connate around ovary, two lowest with nectaries. Style deltoid at apex. Sepals 5, 8-9mm long, 3-4mm broad, lanceolate to linear, green with lighter margins, entire, glabrous or with a few hairs at base, rounded at base. auricles 1-2mm long.

Viola papilionacea calyxCalyx.

Viola papilionacea flower

Fruit - Capsule to +1cm long, 5-6mm in diameter, slightly 3-angled with angles greatly rounded, glabrous. Seeds numerous. Placentation parietal.

Flowering - March - June and sometimes again around October - November.

Habitat - Waste ground, fields, meadows, low woods, ditches, roadsides, railroads.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This is form of V. papilionacea is the least common. For other forms see the V. papilionacea page in the "Blue flowers alternate" section of this website.

Photographs taken in Brown Summit, NC., 4-4-03.